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[原创] 傅正明新译泰戈尔《漂飞鸟》(飞鸟集)

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发表于 2016-8-18 13:33:24 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Stray Birds

by Rabindranath Tagore


I, who have the amphibious duality of nature in me, whose food is in the West and breathe air in the East, do not find a place where I can build my nest. I shall suppose I shall have to be a migratory bird and cross and recross the sea, owning two nests, one on each shore.
--Rabindranath Tagore
From A Letter to William Rothenstein (July 6, 1917)


我有天生的水陆两栖特性,食物在西方,气韵在东方,找不到一片可筑巢之地。我想象自己乃是一只候鸟,将一再穿越大海,此岸彼岸,各有一个巢。
――罗宾德拉纳特•泰戈尔
摘自泰戈尔致威廉•罗森斯坦的书信(1917年7月6日)

泰戈尔诗歌经典《漂飞鸟》(Stray Birds,旧译《飞鸟集》或《漂鸟集》) 完璧于1916年,主要由作者从孟加拉文诗集《碎玉集》自译为英文,同时包含少量直接以英文写作的篇什。
诗人经常以水陆双栖候鸟自况,诗集书题无论译为《飞鸟集》还是《漂鸟集》,均有把双栖候鸟变为单栖动物之虞。兼顾诗人立意和措辞,书题以译为《漂飞鸟》或《候鸟集》为宜。
傅正明新译《漂飞鸟》以独创的诠释角度和中国古典诗词为主的诗体重新精译此作,与现有的各家中译迥然不同,赋予全书以崭新面貌。

泰戈尔《漂飞鸟》新译选载
傅正明译


1
STRAY birds of summer come to my window to sing and fly away.
And yellow leaves of autumn, which have no songs, flutter and fall there with a sigh.

夏日漂飞鸟,落我窗前歌拂晓,鼓翼上青杳。
秋天黄叶多,萧然无语随风落,叹息代骊歌。

注:原文Stray是多义词,导致诗集书题和这首诗的翻译莫衷一是,依照 Oxford English Dictionary,该词作形容词的一种意义是:2 (Of a domestic animal) having no home or having wandered away from home。这一释义与诗人以水陆双栖候鸟自况的隐喻十分吻合。

2
O TROUPE of little vagrants of the world, leave your footprints in my words.

世界小歌队,漂飞向九陲,
请君鸿爪印,入我墨香池。

注:原文TROUPE of little vagrants,可直译为“小小漂泊者的歌队”,有学者认为当指泰戈尔另一部诗集《鸿雁集》(Balaka)中的鸿雁,印度教徒认为“飞翔的鸿雁”(Hansa-balaka)是飞向天上寻求安息之所的人类灵魂的象征。九陲,指极边远之地。清•泣红《胭脂血弹词》第三回:“尔等是素来人种称强干,奈何把独立心思丢九陲。”

3
THE world puts off its mask of vastness to its lover.
It becomes small as one song, as one kiss of the eternal.

其一
浩瀚梵天大面具,诗心生爱便屏除,
寰球丸结一谣曲,亲吻玉成千古书。

其二
大世界之辽阔兮,戴浩瀚之面具,
见钟情之诗心兮,露真容而摘除,
其象貌之纤小兮,如短歌之一阙,
其亲吻之甜蜜兮,作瞬间之永驻。

注:原文the world,义同 the universe,可以解读为印度吠陀经典所说的梵天(Brahma),即作为“至高的一”(the Supreme One)或至高存在的宇宙。宇宙浩瀚,寰球辽阔,却可以在热爱、崇拜梵天的世人面前,在通灵的诗人面前,浓缩凝结为一颗小小弹丸(此乃译者增添的意象),小如一首歌,末行“永恒的一吻”(one kiss of the eternal),犹言“永恒的瞬间”(a moment of eternity),在修辞学中称为矛盾语(oxymoron)。

4
IT is the tears of the earth that keep her smiles in bloom.

泪泉藏地底,不作浅流声,
破土绽微笑,开花播德馨。

注:德馨,德行馨香。语出《书.陈君》:"黍稷非馨,明德惟馨。"

7
THE sands in your way beg for your song and your movement, dancing water. Will you carry the burden of their lameness?

江水掀波舞,泥沙问水娘:
君能同步咏诗章,挟我难行瘸腿向东方?调寄南歌子

注:原文movement 不宜解读为通常意义上的“运动”,当指交响曲的“乐章”。

11
SOME unseen fingers, like idle breeze, are playing upon my heart the music of the ripples.

不知何物如纤指,闲适徐来风暖吹,
搅动心灵一池水,无形有律起涟漪。

27
THE light that plays, like a naked child, among the green leaves happily knows not that man can lie.
晨光一束闹枝头,恰似儿童戏水流,
赤裸天真谁晓得:人常哄骗鱼吞钩。

48
THE stars are not afraid to appear like fireflies.

寒夜星光暗,望中若火虫,
微光不惮小,豆火可帮穷。

注:末行暗用“囊萤”之典,即晋代车胤幼时家贫,夏天以练囊装萤火虫照明读书的故事。

51
YOUR idol is shattered in the dust to prove that God's dust is greater than your idol.

尔曹偶像倒,落地作尘嚣。
一撮神造土,却可近崇高。

54
LIKE the meeting of the seagulls and the waves we meet and come near. The seagulls fly off, the waves roll away and we depart.

相见宛如双鸟落,相随后浪吻前波。
海鸥飞去江潮退,你我各吟萍水歌。

69
"I GIVE my whole water in joy," sings the waterfall, "though little of it is enough for the thirsty."

瀑布多情泻,如诗笑语传:
一行能解渴,我却献全篇。


89
THE scabbard is content to be dull when it protects the keenness of the sword.

刀鞘守钝谨防误伤弱小,
剑芒藏锋翘待力斩凶顽。

104
THE music of the far-away summer flutters around the Autumn seeking its former nest.

夏日琴声向远方,寻踪求迹绕秋梁,
寒巢请问檐前鸟:遗韵依然飘旧香?

107
THE echo mocks her origin to prove she is the original.

山谷回音如少女,噗嗤一笑对声源:
我本天才原创者,请君侧耳听鸿篇。

226
THOSE who have everything but thee, my God, laugh at those who have nothing but thyself.

观世相,千金赃款意无上帝,轻笑他人贫困,
读经书,两袖清风心有神明,谨防自己肮脏。

269
I HAVE learnt the simple meaning of thy whispers in flowers and sunshine--teach me to know thy words in pain and death.

花心隐有呢喃语,日照深藏启悟书,
百义片言谁领会?含辛面死一寒儒。

288
LOVE'S pain sang round my life like the unplumbed sea, and love's joy sang like birds in its flowering groves.

一生情事苦,宛如大海难窥测,悲歌秋日里,
两地爱心甜,恰似鸣禽可噪喧,欢唱花丛间。

292
CLOUDS come floating into my life from other days no longer to shed rain or usher storm but to give colour to my sunset sky.

云起漂浮入我家,素心无意雨喧哗,
不兴风暴摧芳草,但为晚晴添彩霞。

308       
CHEERLESS is the day, the light under frowning clouds is like a punished child with traces of tears on its pale cheeks, and the cry of the wind is like the cry of a wounded world. But I know I am travelling to meet my Friend.

今日少欢畅,阴云皱额头,光如童子泪潜流,受罚欲遮羞。
人哭伤兵燹,风号悲晚秋。我心庆幸一孤舟,正要会良俦。调寄巫山一段云  

321
I HAVE scaled the peak and found no shelter in fame's bleak and barren height. Lead me, my Guide, before the light fades, into the valley of quiet where life's harvest mellows into golden wisdom.

攀登直上高山顶,荣名寒寂荒芜岭,何处可遮身,四望无遁门。
光幽寻僻处,向导望溪谷:秋稻若黄金,开镰收慧明。调寄菩萨蛮

威利•波加尼(Willy Pogány)为初版(The Macmillan Company, 1916)所作的卷首插图
image002.jpg

点评

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